Identification of object of perception is an identification of incentive as this. The identification of object assumes formation of its perceptual image and its checking with earlier created and stored in memory "reference", not one is stored in memory reference, and some set of images organized in system.
The photo as a way of the image and as means of fixing of reflection of real subjects objectively represents the plane image, and still the person is able to perceive correctly the image of object - in view of the fact that in the photo the spatial ratio of objects to similarly human vision grabs.
The role of a sign consists in representing, replacing any thing, acting as the "changed" essence of this thing, for consciousness. In the most general view the sign can be defined as means of communication interaction and thinking.
It is expedient to distinguish two essentially different cases: understanding of sign and not sign objects. If in the first the problem of understanding consists in disclosure, explanation, figuratively speaking someone the sense put in object, its decoding, in the second objects in itself, as a rule, do not make sense (except for such as cars, devices, constructions and other products of human activity where with certain reservations it is possible to consider that at their creation in them "the sense was put") and the person in this second situation of understanding comparison, comparison, etc. of communications and the relations of object as if introduces in it "new sense", tries on the sense introduced in object of understanding and in case of an udachnost of such fitting considers object clear.
The form of fixing of knowledge, or form of presentation of information, hereinafter is understood as its objectivization by means of this or that sign system or on any material carrier, for example on paper. The matter is that the knowledge as that represents a mental phenomenon, is property of mentality of certain individuals and in such quality is inaccessible to another. After its objectivization (fixing) on the material carrier, we will tell in the form of the text, the drawing, a formula, etc., the content of this knowledge (considered as information, the message becomes available to unlimited number of his consumers, it is convenient for distribution in space and time. Any form of fixing of knowledge is at the same time and a communication medium.
If to aim to construct a number of forms of pictographic information, for example on the basis of the increasing significance or that the same, - abstractness increases, the forms of presentation of information considered in this section will be built in such row: photo> technical drawing> drawing> scheme.
As appears from pilot studies, existence of drawings in the printing text message promotes its deeper understanding. And even existence or absence of the caption description of the device and its parts had no essential impact on depth of understanding of the message.
The understanding is a specific informative process, the difficult, hierarchically constructed mental reflection of objects of knowledge as a result of which are created new and the visible, anyway emotionally painted systems of concepts and images uniting in themselves actually a product of this reflection with the corresponding elements of personal knowledge are recreated old, but in a new way.
Process of information transfer as a component of training can and has to be optimized for the purpose of improvement of quality of training. Information in this paper is understood as the message recorded by artificially created signs (or sign systems), available to perception and understanding by audience on which it is calculated.
In this paper I do not consider text forms of fixing of knowledge, and I am limited to only two - pictographic (from Latin pictus - drawn, represented) and ideographic (from the Greek idea - concept.
Decoding - a final phase of process of an identification (and perceptions) - generally consists in "transfer" of the perceived signs to those units of the internal speech which are directly connected with representations and thinking.